Sunday, September 30, 2012

It's time for College Radio Day, October 2 , 2012

It's time to raise awareness of the college and high school radio stations across North America.

It's time to start tuning in and fighting back against the corporate takeover of radio.

It's time to support creative programming and truly independent content and music you can't find anywhere 

It's time to start giving back to the stations that help break the bands you love.

Come on! Give it the old college try! It's time we all come together.

It's time for College Radio Day 
October 2 , 2012

“The aim of College Radio Day is to get people to tune in to their local college radio stations, support this programming and remind college administrators just how important their radio stations are.” – The Record (New Jersey)

“College Radio Day: An SOS for student-run stations…a unifying college-radio event” – The Washington Post

“[An] event that encourages participating stations to tout their role in training students and helping unknown bands find an audience.” – USA Today

“A new, non-Hallmark holiday to honor students' "unique and fearless programming" on the left of the dial.” – SPIN

“A nationwide movement…illuminating the cultural significance of student-run radio” – TIME

“A day reminding listeners that even as commercial radio often sounds more and more corporate, college radio is still out there” – NY Daily News

“College Radio Has Its Day…College Radio Day boosts support” – New Jersey Monthly

“The idea of College Radio Day seems to have caught on” – RadioWorld 

“Today people across North America are celebrating College Radio Day—a brand-new holiday founded by two enthusiasts of college radio” – Gawker


Northeast community and independent college radio stations

WAPJ, Torrington (community)
WCNI, New London (independent college)
WDJW, Somers (high school)
WPKN, Bridgeport (community)
WHUS, Storrs (independent college - UConn)
WNHU, West Haven (independent college - University of New Haven)
WWEB, Wallingford (high school)
WWUH, Hartford (independent college - University of Hartford)

WBOR, (independent college - Bowdoin College)
WERU, Blue Hill (community)
WMPG, Portland (independent college)
WUMF, Farmington (independent college - UMaine)

BIRN (Berklee Internet Radio Network), Boston (independent college internet - Berklee)
Boston Free Radio, Somerville (Community Internet)
EC Radio, Boston (Independent College, Emmanuel College)
I.B.I.S. Radio (the Independent Broadcast Information Service), JP (independent non-commercial)
Lasell College Radio, Newton (internet)
WAVM, Maynard (high school)
WBCR-LP, Great Barrington (community)
WBIM, Bridgewater (indeoendent college - Bridgewater State)
WBRS, Waltham (independent college - Brandeis)
WCHC, Worcester (independent college - Holy Cross)
WCUW, Worcester (community)
WDJM, Framingham (independent college - Framingam State)
WECB, Boston (independent college - Emerson)
WERS. Boston (independent college - Emerson)
WHRB, Cambridge ((1) Harvard)
WKKL, West Barnstable (independent college and community - Cape Cod Community College)
WMBR, Cambridge (independent college and community - MIT)
WMFO, Medford (independent college - Tufts)
WMBC-LP, Greenfield (community)
WMUA, Amherst (independent college - UMass)
WMWM, Salem (independent college - Salem State University)
WNRC-LP, Dudley (independent college - Nichols College)
WOMR/WFMR, Provincetown (community)
WRBB, Boston (independent college - Northeastern)
WSCW, Worcester (independent college internet - Worcester State University)
WSHL, Easton (independent college - Stonehill College)
WTBU, Boston (independent college - Boston University)
WUMD, North Dartmouth (independent college - UMass)
WUML, Lowell (independent college - UMass)
WVVY, Martha's Vineyard (community)
WXOJ-LP, Florence (community)
WZBC, Newton (independent college - Boston College)
WZLY, Wellesley (independent college - Wellesley College)

WNEC, Henniker (independent college - New England College)
WSCA-LP, Portsmouth (community)
WSCS, New London (independent college)
WUNH, Durham (independent college - UNH)

New Jersey
90.3 the core (Rutgurs), Blairstown (Internet)
WPRB, Princeton (community)
WFDU, Teeneck (independent college - Fairleigh-Dickinson)
WFMU, Jersey City (community)

New York
WBAI (community)
WBAR (independent college - Barnard)
WCDB, Albany (independent college - SUNY Albany)
WNYU, Manhattan (independent college - NYU)
WVCF, Fredonia/Dunkirk (independent college - SUNY Fredonia/Dunkirk)
WDFH, lower Hudson Valley (community)
WFNP, New Paltz (independent college - SUNY New Paltz)
WHCS, NYC (independent college - Hunter)
WKCR, NYC (Columbia U)

BSR Radio, Brown University, Providence (Internet Based Brown Student and Community Radio)
WRIU, Kingston (independent college - URI)

WIUV, Castleton (independent college - Castleton State College)
WGDR, Plainfield (independent college - Goddard College)
WOOL, Bellows Falls (community LP)
WRVU, Burlington (independent college - UVM)
WVEW-LP, Brattleborough (community)

* WHRB is an anomaly, it programs in the style of a non-commercial station, it's an all-volunteer student run non-profit, but it has a commercial license and some low-key local commercials.


In celebration of College Radio DayOctober 2 , 2012, for the next seven days, NEFolk has turned on a reminder for each and every college radio program in its Calendar. Tune in, listen and appreciate some fine non-commercial / non-corporate student-producd and hosted radio programming. Please take moment to review the entries. If additions or edits are needed, please email

All who appreciate independent college and community radio stations in the northeast US are encouraged to join with and participate in Northeast Community and Independent College Radioan open group run by and for community and independent college radi
o producer/hosts (no commercial, no "NPR/PRI/PRX/APR/APM, etc, so-called "public" stations) located in New England and contiguous states and provinces. Its mission is to promote independent non-commercial radio, share with our peers and the public news of our own and our stations' programming and network with one another.

Friday, September 28, 2012

Bush/McCoury dates announced for November

A string of dates have been announced for the much-anticipated Sam Bush and Del McCoury tour.
It will be just the two of them, legends both, performing as a duo in a number of mid-sized halls in the back half of November.
For Bush, it is the realization of a long-deferred dream.
"I first saw Del at the Roanoke Bluegrass Festival in 1966 and have been waiting for this opportunity to tour together ever since. We invite you to come join the fun as two old friends make music and swap stories onstage."
Shows scheduled include:
11/15:  The Paramount – Peekskill, NY
11/16:  Norwalk Concert Hall – Norwalk, CT
11/17:  Stockbridge Theatre at Pinkerton – Derry, NH
11/18:  The Birchmere – Alexandria, VA
11/19:  The City Winery – New York, NY
12/01:  The Old Town School of Folk Music – Chicago, IL

Monday, September 24, 2012

Gaelic Roots Events at Boston College, Fall 2012

Received from Elizabeth Sweeny by email and also shared in NEFolk (Yahoo) and and Celtic Music in New England (Facebook).

Center for Irish Programs, Boston College
Gaelic Roots Music, Song, Dance, Workshop, and Lecture Series

Series Director: Séamus Connolly, Sullivan Artist-in-Residence

Fall 2012 Calendar:


Tuesday, September 25 – 2101 Commonwealth Avenue, Brighton (Brighton Campus)
6:30 to 8:30 p.m.
Joey Abarta and Paddy League: Irish music on uilleann pipes and bouzouki.


Joey Abarta, whose debut solo album is due out this fall, tours with Mick Moloney and the group The Green Fields of America, teaches at the local music school of the Irish cultural association Comhaltas Ceoltóirí Éireann and organizes various traditional music concerts and events. Accompanying Abarta will be multi-instrumentalist, composer, and educator Paddy League.


Tuesday, October 23 – Gasson Hall Irish Room (Chestnut Hill Campus)
6:30 to 8:30 p.m.
Traditional Irish Dance and Céilí, directed by Kieran Jordan, with music by Sullivan Artist-in-Residence Séamus Connolly, Michael Tubridy, and friends, with music and dance performances by Boston College students.


Séamus Connolly and Michael Tubridy will be the featured musicians at a participatory Irish dance and céilí evening, co-organized by Kieran Jordan, TCRG. In 1962, Tubridy was a founding member of The Chieftains, one of the most celebrated Irish bands of the past five decades. His prowess on flute, whistle and concertina was a hallmark of the group, which he left in 1979 to resume his career as an engineer. He continues to be active in traditional music circles as a teacher and performer.  Joining Connolly and Tubridy will be Boston’s own Brendan Tonra on fiddle and piano accompanist Helen Kisiel. Tonra and Kisiel are co-producing a children’s book and recording, Three Ducks and a Goose, based on an original composition by Brendan Tonra, with recorded dance steps by Kieran Jordan.


Thursday, November 1 -- Gasson Hall Irish Room (Chestnut Hill Campus)
6:30 to 8:30 p.m.
Irish music on whistle, accordion, guitar and vocals:  concert featuring Kathleen Conneely, Dan Gurney & Eamon O'Leary.

Conneely is a widely-respected musician and teacher who has often appeared at Boston College. She has recently released her first solo CD, The Coming of Spring. Gurney, who lived in Boston while attending Harvard University, has released a well-received solo album: Dan Gurney -- Traditional Irish Music on the Button Accordion. Dublin native O’Leary is a multi-instrumentalist who has been part of the thriving New York City Irish music scene for the past two decades.


Wednesday, November 14 – Gasson Hall Irish Room (Chestnut Hill Campus)
7:30 to 9:30 p.m.
Between Worlds: Concert by Mícheál Ó Súilleabháin, piano; with string quartet and Sullivan Artist-in-Residence Séamus Connolly.


Gasson Hall will be the setting for the concert “Between Worlds” featuring compositions by Ó Súilleabháin, who will perform with Connolly and a string quartet. In addition to composing, arranging, and teaching, Ó Súilleabháin is widely acknowledged as having originated a unique Irish piano style out of an Irish traditional base. While a visiting professor at Boston College in 1990, Ó Súilleabháin organized the “My Love Is in America” fiddle festival that laid the groundwork for Irish music activities at the university. His recorded interviews of musicians at the festival, along with other recordings of the event, inaugurated what is now the university’s Irish Music Archives.


Wednesday, December 5 -- Walsh Hall Function Room (Chestnut Hill Campus)
6:30 to 8:30 p.m.
A Christmas Gathering: Irish Music, Songs, and Stories, featuring Gabriel Donohue & Marian Makins, with Sullivan Artist-in-Residence Séamus Connolly and Boston College students.


The resume of singer and multi-instrumentalist Gabe Donohue includes performances with Eileen Ivers, Cherish the Ladies and The Chieftains. Marian Makins was trained in classical and popular vocal styles, and in recent years has emerged as a gifted traditional-style singer in Irish and English. Also appearing will be Connolly and students from the Boston College Irish music classes.


The above events are free and open to the public.  All events are subject to change. For more information, please or call 617-552-6396.

For directions see . Campus parking guidelines are available at

Inclement weather: visit for updates on weather-related closings on campus.

Event descriptions are provided by the Office of News and Public Affairs and the Irish Music Center of Boston College.

The Burns Library Irish Music Center offers selected video clips of Gaelic Roots events on its YouTube channel:

Friday, September 21, 2012

Paul Geremia coming to Johnny D's , Tuesday, October 9

Just got a call from Paul Geremia , asking me to "trumpet" his upcoming gig at Johnny D's, so I am trumpeting this national treasure, I hope the club is filled.
17 Holland Street, Davis Square, Somerville, Tuesday, October 9, 8pm.  
$10 cash at door 

For those unfamiliar with the club, it seats somewhere around 275. Dinner tables are at stage level and tiered, making for unobstructed sight lines. The sound is excellent, as is the full bar.

Paul's other New England engagements:
10/13 - Stone Soup Coffee House - Pawtucket, RI
10/20 - Roaring Brook Nature Center - Canton, CT
10/27 - The Bull Run - Shirley, MA
11/03 - The Vanilla Bean - Pomfret, CT

Called a "national treasure," Paul Geremia is perhaps the greatest living exponent of the East Coast and Texas fingerpicking and slide guitar styles. Here he performs "Tootie Blues," from the newly released DVD "Guitar Artistry of Paul Geremia." More info.

For almost forty years, Paul Geremia has survived solely by the fruit of his musical labours. Having abandoned all other means of support in 1966, he has been travelling far and wide ever since, performing in every capacity from street singing to club and concert bookings, throughout the U.S.A., Canada and Europe.

In the years since, Geremia has built a reputation as a first rate bluesman, songwriter, a "scholar" of early jazz and blues, and one of the best country blues fingerpickers ever with his tools - six and twelve-string guitars, harmonica, piano and a husky soulful voice - and with an innate sense of the humour as well as the drama of the music, he keeps traditional blues fresh and alive with his performances.

Combining his interpretation of the earlier music of people like Blind Lemon Jefferson, Robert Johnson, Blind Willie McTell, Scrapper Blackwell and Blind Blake, with his original compositions, he has created a style which is very much his own and which has received accolades in the U.S.A. and Europe, too numerous to mention.

Geremia's background isn't typical for a bluesman. He is a third generation Italian-American who, as he laughingly puts it, "was born in the Providence River Delta". Growing up in a family that moved across the country and back numerous times weaned his appetite for music, history and travel, which served him well later on.

During the sixties, Paul noticed that the music he had enjoyed playing on harmonica (his first instrument) was now referred to as "Folk Music" and was enjoying popularity. During his short time in agriculture college, he was mostly occupied with learning guitar and hitch-hiking to where the music was. He soon left college and hit the road permanently. He found paying gigs in coffee houses and "basket houses" in cities and at college campuses and made occasional forays South and West in search of the music he loved and what gigs he could find.

During these years, Geremia crossed paths with people whose influences were beneficial to his development and understanding of the tradition. He worked as opening act for some of the early blues "legends" thereby gaining an immeasurable depth of knowledge from people like Babe Stovall, Yank Rachel, Son House, Skip James, Howlin' Wolf, and many others, especially Pink Anderson whose career he helped revitalize.

Geremia has recorded ten solo albums, and has appeared on numerous anthologies and compilation discs. His superb recordings have made him a critical favorite and place him firmly among the legends who inspired and influenced him over the past four decades.

Friday, September 14, 2012

49th Anniversary of the 16th Street Baptist Church Bombing

The NEFolk calendar reminds us that tomorrow, September 15, is the 49th anniversary of the 16th Street Baptist Church bombing, a cowardly and despicable act of terrorism and racism perpetrated by Bobby Frank Cherry, Thomas Blanton, Herman Frank Cash, and Robert Chambliss, members of United Klans of America, a Ku Klux Klan group.
Four girls, Addie Mae Collins (age 14), Denise McNair (age 11), Carole Robertson (age 14), and Cynthia Wesley (age 14), were killed in the attack, and 22 additional people were injured, one of whom was Addie Mae Collins' younger sister, Sarah. The explosion blew a hole in the church's rear wall, destroyed the back steps and all but one stained-glass window, which showed Christ leading a group of little children.

Barnes Newbury, host of "My Back Pages" on WMVY, Martha's Vineyard, posted this today on his Facebook personal page

Tomorrow on My Back Pages we will hear a set dedicated to four little girls in what has now become known as Birmingham Sunday. On the 15th of September, 1963, four young Sunday school girls were murdered in Birmingham, Alabama when a bomb blew up in the basement of the 16th Street Baptist Church, allegedly by the KKK. Terrorism, pure and simple. This horrific event would play a huge role in passing the Civil Rights Act of 1964...Please join us at 8 am

From wiki

The 16th Street Baptist Church in Birmingham, Alabama was bombed on Sunday, September 15, 1963 as an act of racially motivated terrorism. The explosion at the African-American church, which killed four girls, marked a turning point in the U.S. 1960s Civil Rights Movement and contributed to support for passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964.

Although city leaders had reached a settlement in May with demonstrators and started to integrate public places, not everyone agreed with ending segregation. Bombings and other acts of violence followed the settlement, and the church had become an inviting target. The three-story 16th Street Baptist Church in Birmingham, Alabama had been a rallying point for civil rights activities through the spring of 1963, and was where the students who were arrested during the 1963 Birmingham campaign's Children's Crusade were trained. The church was used as a meeting-place for civil rights leaders such as Martin Luther King, Jr.Ralph David Abernathy and Fred Shuttlesworth. Tensions were escalated when the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) and the Congress on Racial Equality (CORE) became involved in a campaign to register African Americans to vote in Birmingham.
Still, the campaign was successful. The demonstrations led to an agreement in May between the city's African-American leaders and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) to integrate public facilities in the country.
In the early morning of Sunday, September 15, 1963, Bobby Frank CherryThomas BlantonHerman Frank Cash, and Robert Chambliss, members of United Klans of America, a Ku Klux Klan group, planted a box of dynamite with a time delay under the steps of the church, near the basement. At about 10:22 a.m., twenty-six children were walking into the basement assembly room to prepare for the sermon entitled “The Love That Forgives,” when the bomb exploded. Four girls, Addie Mae Collins (age 14), Denise McNair (age 11), Carole Robertson (age 14), and Cynthia Wesley (age 14), were killed in the attack, and 22 additional people were injured, one of whom was Addie Mae Collins' younger sister, Sarah.[1] The explosion blew a hole in the church's rear wall, destroyed the back steps and all but one stained-glass window, which showed Christ leading a group of little children.[2]


On the morning of the bombing, a white man was seen getting out of a white and turquoise Chevrolet car and placing a box under the steps of the Sixteenth Street Baptist Church. Soon afterwards, at 10:22 a.m., the bomb exploded, killing Denise McNair (11), Addie Mae Collins (14), Carole Robertson (14) and Cynthia Wesley (14). The four girls had been attending Sunday school classes at the church. Twenty-two other people were also hurt by the blast.
Civil rights activists blamed George Wallace, the Governor of Alabama, for the killings. Nicknamed “Bombingham”, the city has had more than 40 bombings since World War I.[3] Only a week before the bombing Wallace had told The New York Times that to stop integration Alabama needed a "few first-class funerals."
A witness identified Robert Chambliss, a member of the Ku Klux Klan, as the man who placed the bomb under the steps of the Sixteenth Street Baptist Church. He was arrested and charged with murder and possessing a box of 122 sticks of dynamite without a permit. On October 8, 1963, Chambliss was found not guilty of murder and received a hundred-dollar fine and a six-month jail sentence for having the dynamite.
The case was unsolved until Bill Baxley was elected attorney general of Alabama. He requested the original Federal Bureau of Investigation files on the case and discovered that the organization had accumulated a great deal of evidence against Chambliss that had not been used in the original trial.
In November 1977, Chambliss was tried once again for the Sixteenth Street Baptist Church bombing. Now aged 73, Chambliss was found guilty and sentenced to life imprisonment. Chambliss died in an Alabama prison on October 29, 1985.
On May 18, 2000, the FBI announced that the Sixteenth Street Baptist Church bombing had been carried out by the Ku Klux Klan splinter group, the Cahaba Boys. It was claimed that four men, Robert Chambliss, Herman Cash, Thomas Blanton and Bobby Cherry had been responsible for the crime. Cash was dead but Blanton and Cherry were arrested, and both have since been tried and convicted.[citation needed]

[edit]Reactions and aftermath

The explosions increased anger and tension, which was already high in Birmingham. Birmingham’s Mayor Albert Boutwell wept and said, “It is just sickening that a few individuals could commit such a horrible atrocity.” Two more black people were shot to death approximately seven hours following the Sunday morning bombing, including 16-year-old Johnny Robinson and 13-year-old Virgil Ware, who were shot at about the same time. Robinson was shot by police, reportedly after they caught him throwing rocks at cars and he ignored orders to halt as he fled down an alley. Ware was "shot from ambush"[4] as he and his brother rode their bicycles in a residential suburb, 15 miles north of the city; UPI reported: "Two white youths seen riding a motorcycle in the area were sought by police."[5][6]
In spite of everything, the newly-integrated schools continued to meet. Schools had been integrated the previous Tuesday with black and white children in the same classrooms for the first time in that city.[7]
As the news story about the four girls reached the national and international press, many felt that they had not taken the Civil Rights struggle seriously enough. A Milwaukee Sentinel editorial opined, “For the rest of the nation, the Birmingham church bombing should serve to goad the conscience. The deaths…in a sense are on the hands of each of us.”[8]
The city of Birmingham initially offered a $52,000 reward for the arrest of the bombers. Governor George Wallace, an outspoken segregationalist, offered an additional $5,000. However, civil rights activist Dr.Martin Luther King, Jr. wired Wallace that "the blood of four little children ... is on your hands. Your irresponsible and misguided actions have created in Birmingham and Alabama the atmosphere that has induced continued violence and now murder."[2]
Following the tragic event, white strangers visited the grieving families to express their sorrow. At the funeral for three of the girls (one family preferred a separate, private funeral), Martin Luther King, Jr., spoke about life being "as hard as crucible steel." More than 8,000 mourners, including 800 clergymen of all races, attended the service. No city officials attended.[9] The bombing continued to increase worldwide sympathy for the civil rights cause. On July 2, 1964, President Lyndon Johnson signed the Civil Rights Act of 1964, ensuring equal rights of African Americans before the law.

[edit]Later prosecutions

FBI investigations gathered evidence pointing to four suspects: Robert Chambliss, Thomas E. Blanton Jr, Herman Cash, and Bobby Frank Cherry. According to a later report from the Bureau, “By 1965, we had serious suspects—namely, Robert E. Chambliss, Bobby Frank Cherry, Herman Frank Cash, and Thomas E. Blanton, Jr., all KKK members—but witnesses were reluctant to talk and physical evidence was lacking. Also, at that time, information from our surveillances was not admissible in court. As a result, no federal charges were filed in the ’60s.”[10] Although Chambliss was convicted on an explosives charge, no convictions were obtained in the 1960s for the killings.
Alabama Attorney General William Baxley reopened the investigation after he took office in 1971, requesting evidence from the FBI and building trust with key witnesses who had been reluctant to testify in the first trial. The prosecutor had been a student at the University of Alabama when he heard about the bombing in 1963. “I wanted to do something, but I didn’t know what.”[11]
In 1977 former Ku Klux Klansman Robert "Dynamite Bob" Chambliss was indicted in the murder of all four girls, tried and convicted of the first-degree murder of Denise McNair, and sentenced to life in prison. He died eight years later in prison.[12]
Thomas E. Blanton, Jr. was tried in 2001 and found guilty at age 62 of four counts of murder and sentenced to life in prison.[13]
Herman Cash died in 1994 without having been charged. Bobby Frank Cherry, also a former Klansman, was indicted [in 2001] along with Blanton. Judge James Garrett of Jefferson County Circuit Court ruled "that Mr. Cherry's trial would be delayed indefinitely because a court-ordered psychiatric evaluation concluded that he was mentally incompetent.”[14] He was later convicted in 2002, sentenced to life in prison, and died in 2004.[15]


The Sixteenth Street Baptist Church in 2005

[edit]In film

[edit]In literature


[edit]Prose and plays

  • Four Spirits (2003), a novel by Sena Jeter Naslund, was adapted as a play (2006) by her and Elaine Hughes. The world premiere of the play was on February 7, 2008 at the University of Alabama in Huntsville.
  • The novel Song of Solomon (1977), by Toni Morrison, contains an allusion to this incident.
  • The novel The Watsons Go to Birmingham - 1963 (1995), by Christopher Paul Curtis, conveys the events of the bombing.
  • Carlyn Maull McKinstry's memoir, While the World Watched (2011), provides an eyewitness account of the bombing, the events leading up to it (e.g., the anonymous phone calls made to the church, some of which warned that a bomb would go off, and when), and the climate and life at that time in Birmingham, specifically, and in the Jim Crow South, more generally, as the publisher describes: "from the bombings, riots and assassinations to the historic marches and triumphs that characterized the Civil Rights movement."[16]

[edit]In music

[edit]In other works

Stained glass window donated by the people ofWales after the 1963 bombing of the church. The south-facing window was designed by Welsh artist John Petts and depicts a black Christ with his arms outstretched. The right hand symbolizes oppression, his left is asking for forgiveness. The words "You do it to me" refer to Christ's parable ofthe sheep and the goats.
  • The "Welsh Window" in the church, itself, was sculpted by John Petts, who also initiated a campaign in Wales to raise money to help rebuild the church. The stained glass window depicts a black man, arms outstretched, reminiscent of the Crucifixion of Jesus, and is inscribed: "Given by The People of Wales".[18]

[edit]See also


  1. ^ "16th Street Baptist Church Bombing: Forty Years Later, Birmingham Still Struggles with Violent Past". 2003-09-15. Retrieved 22 November 2010.
  2. a b "Six Dead After Church Bombing"Washington Post. 1963-0-16. Retrieved 2010-11-21.
  3. ^ "New Bomb Blast Hits Birmingham". The Miami News. 1963-09-25.
  4. ^ William O. Bryant (September 11, 1963). "Six Negro Children Killed in Alabama"The Times News (United Press International). Retrieved 6 September 2012.
  5. ^ William O. Bryant (September 11, 1963). "Six Negro Children Killed in Alabama"The Times News (United Press International). Retrieved 6 September 2012.
  6. ^ "Six Dead After Church Bombing Blast Kills Four Children; Riots Follow; Two Youths Slain; State Reinforces Birmingham Police"The Washington Post (United Press International). September 16, 1963. Retrieved 6 September 2012.
  7. ^ "Six Negro Children Killed in Alabama Sunday"The Times-News, Hendersonville, NC. 1963-09-11. Retrieved 2010-11-21.
  8. ^ "Nation’s Shame"The Milwaukee Sentinel. 1963-09-16. Retrieved 2010-11-21.
  9. ^ "We Shall Overcome Historic Places of the Civil Rights Movement"National Public Radio. Archived from the original on 17 December 2007. Retrieved 2007-11-19.
  10. ^ "FBI: A Byte Out of History: The ’63 Baptist Church Bombing".Federal Bureau of Investigation. Archived from the original on 13 October 2010. Retrieved 2010-11-21.
  11. ^ Jenkins, Ray (1977-11-21). "Birmingham Church Bombing Conviction Ended an Obsession of the Prosecutor"The Day (New London, Connecticut). Retrieved 2010-11-21.
  12. ^ "Klansman Guilty in Death"The Pittsburgh Press. 1977-11-19. Retrieved 2010-11-21.
  13. ^ "Former Klansman faces prison in 1963 Killings"The Vindicator. 2001-05-02. Retrieved 2011-04-18.
  14. ^ Sack, Kevin (2001-04-25). "As Church Bombing Trial Begins in Birmingham, the City's Past Is Very Much Present"The New York Times. Retrieved 2010-11-21.
  15. ^ O'Donnell, Michelle (2004-11-19). "Bobby Frank Cherry, 74, Klansman in Bombing, Dies"The New York Times. Retrieved 2009-02-05.
  16. ^ While the World Watched. Tyndale House Publishers. 2/1/2011.
  17. ^ Joan Baez sings "Birmingham Sunday>" link includes lyrics.]
  18. ^ Gary Younge. "The Wales Window of Alabama". Nicola